文章 78
评论 0
浏览 8355
4-DQL 语句

4-DQL 语句

3.7 DQL 语句

3.7.1 单表操作

语法:

SELECT
[ALL | DISTINCT | DISTINCTROW ]
[SQL_CACHE | SQL_NO_CACHE]
select_expr [, select_expr ...]
[FROM table_references
[WHERE where_condition]
[GROUP BY {col_name | expr | position}
[ASC | DESC], ... [WITH ROLLUP]]
[HAVING where_condition]
[ORDER BY {col_name | expr | position}
[ASC | DESC], ...]
[LIMIT {[offset,] row_count | row_count OFFSET offset}]
[FOR UPDATE | LOCK IN SHARE MODE]

说明:

  • 字段显示可以使用别名:

    • col1 AS alias1, col2 AS alias2, ...
  • WHERE子句:指明过滤条件以实现"选择"的功能:

    • 过滤条件:布尔型表达式
  • 算术操作符:+, -, *, /, %

  • 比较操作符:=,<=>(相等或都为空), <>, !=(非标准SQL), >, >=, <, <=

  • BETWEEN min_num AND max_num,一般用于去范围条件

  • IN (element1, element2, ...),一般用于取几个条件也就是或者

  • IS NULL, IS NOT NULL,判断空值

  • DISTINCT 去除重复行,范例:SELECT DISTINCT gender FROM students;

  • LIKE: % 任意长度的任意字符 _ 任意单个字符

  • RLIKE:正则表达式,索引失效,不建议使用

  • REGEXP:匹配字符串可用正则表达式书写模式,同上

  • 逻辑操作符:NOT,AND,OR,XOR

  • GROUP:根据指定的条件把查询结果进行"分组"以用于做"聚合"运算

    • 常见聚合函数:avg(), max(), min(), count(), sum()
    • HAVING: 对分组聚合运算后的结果指定过滤条件
    • 一旦分组group by ,select语句后只跟分组的字段,聚合函数
  • ORDER BY: 根据指定的字段对查询结果进行排序

    • 升序:ASC
    • 降序:DESC
  • LIMIT [[offset,]row_count]:对查询的结果进行输出行数数量限制

  • 对查询结果中的数据请求施加"锁

    • FOR UPDATE: 写锁,独占或排它锁,只有一个读和写操作
    • LOCK IN SHARE MODE: 读锁,共享锁,同时多个读操作

范例:密码生成

mariadb root@(none):(none)> select password("zhangzhuo");
+-------------------------------------------+
| password("zhangzhuo")                     |
+-------------------------------------------+
| *E537F5F82C1F36D566632B4C9061BD6715BABF7C |
+-------------------------------------------+
1 row in set
Time: 0.013s

范例:简单查询

#查看表结构
mysql root@(none):hellodb> desc students
#插入数据
mysql root@(none):hellodb> insert into students values(1,'tom','m'),(2,'alice','f');
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where `StuID` <3;
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where `Gender`='m';
#查询字段空值或非空值
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where `ClassID` is null;
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where `ClassID` is not null;
#分组后降序排序查询前2行
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students order by name desc limit 2;
#分组后降序排序查询跳过第一行查询后2行
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students order by name desc limit 1,2;
#范围查询俩种方式
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where `StuID` >=2 and `StuID` <=4;
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where  `StuID` between 2 and 4;
#模糊查询
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where name like 't%';
#正则表达式查询
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where name rlike '.*[lo].*';
#查询结果命名别名
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select `StuID` id,name as stuname from students;
#包含查询
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where `ClassID` in (1,3,5);
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where `ClassID` not in (1,3,5);

范例:判断是否为NULL俩种方式或者不为NULL

mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where `ClassID` is null;
+-------+-------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+
| StuID | Name        | Age | Gender | ClassID | TeacherID |
+-------+-------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+
| 24    | Xu Xian     | 27  | M      |   |     |
| 25    | Sun Dasheng | 100 | M      |   |     |
+-------+-------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+

2 rows in set
Time: 0.007s
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where `ClassID` <=> null;
+-------+-------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+
| StuID | Name        | Age | Gender | ClassID | TeacherID |
+-------+-------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+
| 24    | Xu Xian     | 27  | M      |   |     |
| 25    | Sun Dasheng | 100 | M      |   |     |
+-------+-------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+

2 rows in set
Time: 0.007s
#不为空的
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where `ClassID` is not null;

范例:去重

mysql root@(none):hellodb> select distinct gender from students;
+--------+
| gender |
+--------+
| M      |
| F      |
+--------+
2 rows in set
Time: 0.008s

范例:分组统计

#查看每个班级中人数
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select `ClassID`,count(*) from students group by classid;
+---------+----------+
| ClassID | count(*) |
+---------+----------+
| 2       | 3        |
| 1       | 4        |
| 4       | 4        |
| 3       | 4        |
| 5       | 1        |
| 7       | 3        |
| 6       | 4        |
|   | 2        |
+---------+----------+
8 rows in set
Time: 1.634s
#查看每个班级中男生女生分别的人数

mysql root@(none):hellodb> select `ClassID`,`Gender`,count(*) as 数量 from students group by classid,ge
-> nder
+---------+--------+------+
| ClassID | Gender | 数量 |
+---------+--------+------+
| 2       | M      | 3    |
| 1       | M      | 2    |
| 4       | M      | 4    |
| 3       | M      | 1    |
| 5       | M      | 1    |
| 3       | F      | 3    |
| 7       | F      | 2    |
| 6       | F      | 3    |
| 6       | M      | 1    |
| 1       | F      | 2    |
| 7       | M      | 1    |
|   | M      | 2    |
+---------+--------+------+
12 rows in set
Time: 0.007s
#统计班级编号大于3的且班级中平均年纪大于30的班级
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select classid,avg(age) as 平均年龄 from students where `ClassID` >3 group b
-> y classid having 平均年龄 >30;
+---------+----------+
| classid | 平均年龄 |
+---------+----------+
| 5       | 46.0000  |
+---------+----------+
1 row in set
Time: 0.008s
#统计学生表中男生的平均年龄
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select gender,avg(age) 平均年龄 from students group by gender having `Gender -> `='M';
#多个字段分组统计,分组在前在后不影响结果
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select classid,gender,count(*) 数量 from students group by classid,gender;
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select classid,gender,count(*) 数量 from students group by gender,classid;
#注意:一旦使用分组group by,在select 后面的只能采用分组的列和聚合函数,其它的列不能放在select后面,否则根据系统变量SQL_MODE的值不同而不同的结果

范例:排序

#年龄按降序排序取前三个
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students order by `Age` desc limit 3;
#年龄按降序排序跳过前三个取后续的2个
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students order by `Age` desc limit 3,2;
#按班级id字段非空分组后年龄求和后按班级id升序排序,分组前排除班级id字段是null的
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select classid,sum(age) from students where `ClassID` is not null group by c
-> lassid order by `ClassID`;
#按班级id字段非空分组后年龄求和后按班级id升序排序,分组后排除班级id字段是null的
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select classid,sum(age) from students group by classid having classid is not
->  null order by `ClassID`;
#按班级id字段非空分组后年龄求和后按班级id升序排序跳过前2个取后续的3个
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select classid,sum(age) from students where `ClassID` is not null group by c
-> lassid order by `ClassID` limit 2,3;
#过滤班级id是null的按性别降序排序后年龄按升序排序
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students where `ClassID` is not null order by `Gender` desc,ag
-> e asc;
#多列排序,按性别降序排序后年龄按升序排序
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students order by `Gender` desc,age asc;

范例:分组和排序

#按班级id分组,统计各个班级数量后,数量按升序排序
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select classid,count(*) 数量 from students group by classid order by 数量;
#以性别和班级分组排除班级id是空的,求他们的平均年龄后,按照性别先升序排序在按照班级id升序排序
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select gender,classid,avg(age) from students where `ClassID` is not null gro
-> up by gender,classid order by `Gender`,`ClassID`;
#按照年龄升序排序取前10个
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students order by `Age` limit 10;
#按照年龄升序排序跳过前3个取后续的10个
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students order by `Age` limit 3,10;
#先对年龄去重后年龄按照升序排序后取前3个
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select distinct age from students order by `Age` limit 3;
#先对年龄去重后年龄按照升序排序后跳过前3个取后续的5个
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select distinct age from students order by age limit 3,5;

#分组和排序的次序group by,having,order by
#以下顺序会出错,group by,order by,having
#以下顺序会出错,order by,group by,having

范例:时间字段进行过滤查询,并且timestamp可以随其它字段的更新自动更新

mysql root@(none):hellodb> create table testdata (id int auto_increment primary key,date timestamp defa
-> ult current_timestamp on update current_timestamp );
mysql root@(none):hellodb> insert into testdata () values(),(),();
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from testdata;
+----+---------------------+
| id | date                |
+----+---------------------+
| 1  | 2021-02-04 14:47:34 |
| 2  | 2021-02-04 14:47:34 |
| 3  | 2021-02-04 14:47:34 |
+----+---------------------+
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from testdata where `date` between '2021-02-04 14:40:00' and '2021-
-> 02-04 14:50:00';
+----+---------------------+
| id | date                |
+----+---------------------+
| 1  | 2021-02-04 14:47:34 |
| 2  | 2021-02-04 14:47:34 |
| 3  | 2021-02-04 14:47:34 |
+----+---------------------+
#修改其它字段,会自动更新timestamp字段
mysql root@(none):hellodb> update testdata set id=10 where id=1;
Query OK, 1 row affected
Time: 0.002s
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from testdata;
+----+---------------------+
| id | date                |
+----+---------------------+
| 2  | 2021-02-04 14:52:34 |
| 3  | 2021-02-04 14:52:34 |
| 4  | 2021-02-04 14:52:38 |
| 5  | 2021-02-04 14:52:39 |
| 10 | 2021-02-04 14:53:07 |
+----+---------------------+
5 rows in set
Time: 0.006s

3.7.2 多表查询

多表查询,即查询结果来自于多张表
clipboard.png

  • 子查询:在SQL语句嵌套着查询语句,性能较差,基于某语句的查询结果再次进行的查询

  • 联合查询:UNION

  • 交叉连接:笛卡尔乘积 CROSS JOIN

  • 内连接:

    • 等值连接:让表之间的字段以"等值"建立连接关系
    • 不等值连接
    • 自然连接:去掉重复列的等值连接 , 语法: FROM table1 NATURAL JOIN table2;
  • 外连接:

    • 左外连接:FROM tb1 LEFT JOIN tb2 ON tb1.col=tb2.col
    • 右外连接:FROM tb1 RIGHT JOIN tb2 ON tb1.col=tb2.col
    • 完全外连接: FROM tb1 FULL OUTER JOIN tb2 ON tb1.col=tb2.col 注意:MySQL 不支持此SQL语法
  • 自连接:本表和本表进行连接查询

3.7.2.1 子查询

子查询 subquery 即SQL语句调用另一个SELECT子句,可以是对同一张表,也可以是对不同表,主要有以下四种常见的用法:

  1. 用于比较表达式中的子查询;子查询仅能返回单个值
#查询学生表中年龄大于老师表中平均年龄
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select name,age from students where `Age`>(select avg(`Age`) from teachers);
  1. 用于IN中的子查询:子查询应该单独查询并返回一个或多个值重新构成列表
#查询学生表中年龄和老师表中年龄一致的
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select name,age from students where age in(select age from teachers);
  1. 用于EXISTS 和 Not EXISTS

参考链接:https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/exists-and-not-exists-subqueries.html

EXISTS(包括 NOT EXISTS )子句的返回值是一个BOOL值。 EXISTS 内部有一个子查询语句(SELECT... FROM...), 将其称为EXIST的内查询语句。其内查询语句返回一个结果集。 EXISTS子句根据其内查询语句的结果集空或者非空,返回一个布尔值。将外查询表的每一行,代入内查询作为检验,如果内查询返回的结果为非空值,则EXISTS子句返回TRUE,外查询的这一行数据便可作为外查询的结果行返回,否则不能作为结果

#查询学生表中有对应老师的学生
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students s where exists (select * from teachers t where s.`Tea -> cherID`=t.`TID`);
+-------+-------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+
| StuID | Name        | Age | Gender | ClassID | TeacherID |
+-------+-------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+
| 1     | Shi Zhongyu | 22  | M      | 2       | 3         |
| 4     | Ding Dian   | 32  | M      | 4       | 4         |
| 5     | Yu Yutong   | 26  | M      | 3       | 1         |
+-------+-------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+
#说明:

1. EXISTS (或 NOT EXISTS) 用在 where之后,且后面紧跟子查询语句(带括号)
2. EXISTS (或 NOT EXISTS) 只关心子查询有没有结果,并不关心子查询的结果具体是什么
3. 上述语句把students的记录逐条代入到Exists后面的子查询中,如果子查询结果集不为空,即说明存在,那么这条students的记录出现在最终结果集,否则被排除

#查询学生表中无对应老师的学生
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from students s where not exists(select * from teachers t where s.` -> TeacherID`=t.tid);
+-------+---------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+
| StuID | Name          | Age | Gender | ClassID | TeacherID |
+-------+---------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+
| 2     | Shi Potian    | 22  | M      | 1       | 7         |
| 3     | Xie Yanke     | 53  | M      | 2       | 16        |
| 6     | Shi Qing      | 46  | M      | 5       |     |
| 7     | Xi Ren        | 19  | F      | 3       |     |
| 8     | Lin Daiyu     | 17  | F      | 7       |     |
| 9     | Ren Yingying  | 20  | F      | 6       |     |
| 10    | Yue Lingshan  | 19  | F      | 3       |     |
| 11    | Yuan Chengzhi | 23  | M      | 6       |     |
| 12    | Wen Qingqing  | 19  | F      | 1       |     |
| 13    | Tian Boguang  | 33  | M      | 2       |     |
| 14    | Lu Wushuang   | 17  | F      | 3       |     |
| 15    | Duan Yu       | 19  | M      | 4       |     |
| 16    | Xu Zhu        | 21  | M      | 1       |     |
| 17    | Lin Chong     | 25  | M      | 4       |     |
| 18    | Hua Rong      | 23  | M      | 7       |     |
| 19    | Xue Baochai   | 18  | F      | 6       |     |
| 20    | Diao Chan     | 19  | F      | 7       |     |
| 21    | Huang Yueying | 22  | F      | 6       |     |
| 22    | Xiao Qiao     | 20  | F      | 1       |     |
| 23    | Ma Chao       | 23  | M      | 4       |     |
| 24    | Xu Xian       | 27  | M      |   |     |
| 25    | Sun Dasheng   | 100 | M      |   |     |
+-------+---------------+-----+--------+---------+-----------+
  1. 用于FROM子句中的子查询

使用格式:

SELECT tb_alias.col1,... FROM (SELECT clause) AS tb_alias WHERE Clause;

范例:

mysql root@(none):hellodb> select s.classid,s.aage from (select classid,avg(age) as aage from students
-> where `ClassID` is not null group by classid) as s where s.aage>30;

范例:子查询

#子查询:select 的执行结果,被其它SQL调用
#查询学生表中学生年龄大于老师平均年龄的学生
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select `StuID`,`Name`,`Age` from students where age > (select avg(age) from
-> teachers);

范例:子查询用于更新表

mysql root@(none):hellodb> update teachers set age=(select avg(age) from students) where `TID`=4;
mysql root@(none):hellodb> select * from teachers;
+-----+---------------+-----+--------+
| TID | Name          | Age | Gender |
+-----+---------------+-----+--------+
| 1   | Song Jiang    | 45  | M      |
| 2   | Zhang Sanfeng | 94  | M      |
| 3   | Miejue Shitai | 77  | F      |
| 4   | Lin Chaoying  | 27  | F      |
+-----+---------------+-----+--------+

3.7.2.2 联合查询

联合查询 Union 实现的条件,多个表的字段数量相同,字段名和数据类型可以不同,但一般数据类型是相同的

SELECT Name,Age FROM students UNION SELECT Name,Age FROM teachers;

范例:联合查询

#多表联合查询,联合查询的表必须字段数相同
select tid as id,name,age,gender from teachers union select stuid,name,age,gender from students;
#如果是相同的表不会显示相同的信息
select * from teachers union select * from teachers;
#如果想显示相同的信息需要在union后面加all
select * from teachers union all select * from teachers;

范例:去重

#除去查询结果中的重复记录的distinct
select distinct * from teachers;
#联合查询默认是去重的union all不去重

3.7.2.3 交叉连接

cross join 即多表的记录之间做笛卡尔乘积组合,并且多个表的列横向合并相加, "雨露均沾"

比如: 第一个表3行4列,第二个表5行6列,cross join后的结果为3*5=15行,4+6=10列

交叉连接生成的记录可能会非常多,建议慎用

范例:交叉连接

#横向合并,交叉连接(横向笛卡尔)
#俩种写法
select * from students cross join teachers;
select * from students,teachers;

3.7.2.4 内连接

inner join 内连接取多个表的交集

范例:内连接

#内连接inner join
#查询学生表中代课老师id和老师表老师id相同的数据把他们连接起来,俩种写法
select * from students inner join teachers on students.teacherid=teachers.tid;
select * from students,teachers where students.teacherid=teachers.tid;
#如果表定义了别名,原表名将无法使用
select stuid,s.name as student_name,tid,t.name as teacher_name from students as s inner join teachers as t on s.teacherid=t.tid;
#查询学生性别和老师性别不相等的,由于老师有多个学生有多个每个学生都会与老师进行比较不相等的都会显示
select s.name 学生姓名,s.age 学生年龄,s.gender 学生性别,t.name 老师姓名,t.age 老师年龄,t.gender 老师性别 from students s,teachers t where s.`Gender` <> t.`Gender`;
#内连接后过滤数据
#查询学生表有代课老师的学生并且年龄大于30的人与想对应的老师数据进行内连接
select * from students s inner join teachers t on s.`TeacherID`=t.tid and s.age >30;

自然连接

  • 当源表和目标表共享相同名称的列时,就可以在它们之间执行自然连接,而无需指定连接列。
  • 在使用纯自然连接时,如没有相同的列时,会产生交叉连接(笛卡尔乘积)
  • 语法:(SQL:1999)SELECT table1.column, table2.column FROM table1 NATURAL JOIN table2;

3.7.2.5 左和右外连接

范例:左,右外连接

#左外连接
select * from students as s left outer join teachers as t on s.`TeacherID`=t.tid;
#左外连接扩展
select * from students as s left outer join teachers as t on s.`TeacherID`=t.tid where t.tid is null;
#多个条件的左外连接
select * from students as s left outer join teachers as t on s.`TeacherID`=t.tid and s.`TeacherID` is null;
#先左外连接,再过滤
select * from students as s left outer join teachers as t on s.`TeacherID`=t.tid where s.`TeacherID` is null;
#右外连接
select * from students s right outer join teachers t on s.`TeacherID`=t.tid;
#右外连接的扩展用法
select * from students s right outer join teachers t on s.`TeacherID`=t.tid where s.`TeacherID` is null;

3.7.2.6 完全外连接

MySQL 不支持完全外连接full outer join语法

#MySQL不支持完全外连接 full outer join,利用以下方式法代替
select * from students left join teachers on students.`TeacherID`=teachers.tid union select * from students right join teachers on students.`TeacherID`=teachers.tid;

3.7.2.7 自连接

自连接, 即表自身连接自身

范例:自连接

#自连接
select * from teachers;
select e.name,l.name from teachers as e inner join teachers as l on e.`TID`=l.tid;

3.7.3 SELECT 语句处理的顺序

clipboard.png

查询执行路径中的组件:查询缓存、解析器、预处理器、优化器、查询执行引擎、存储引擎

SELECT语句的执行流程:

FROM Clause --> WHERE Clause --> GROUP BY --> HAVING Clause -->SELECT -->ORDER BY --> LIMIT

标题:4-DQL 语句
作者:Carey
地址:HTTPS://zhangzhuo.ltd/articles/2021/03/03/1614770884522.html

生而为人

取消